The rhomboid major is a skeletal muscle on the back that connects the scapula (shoulder blade) with the vertebrae of the spinal column.
There are two rhomboid muscles; the rhomboid major and the rhomboid minor. Often simply called the rhomboids, they are rhombus-shaped muscles associated with the scapula (shoulder blade) and are chiefly responsible for its retraction.
The rhomboid major is located below (inferior to) the rhomboid minor. They act together to keep the scapula pressed against the thoracic wall.
The rhomboid major helps to hold the scapula (and thus the upper arm) onto the ribcage. Other muscles that perform this function include the serratus anterior and pectoralis minor.
The rhomboids also act to retract the scapula, pulling it towards the vertebral column.
The rhomboids work collectively with the levator scapulae muscles to elevate the medial border of the scapula, downwardly rotating the scapula. Antagonists to this function (upward rotators of the scapulae) are the serratus anterior and upper and lower fibres of the trapezius. If the lower fibres are inactive, the serratus anterior and upper trapezii work in tandem with the rhomboids and levators to elevate the entire scapula.
While other shoulder muscles are active, the rhomboids stabilise the scapula.
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