Shoulder extension is a straightening at the shoulder (glenohumeral) joint resulting in an increase of angle (extension) – moving the upper arm down to the rear – see Figure 1.
The key muscles involved in this movement are the latissimus dorsi, the posterior deltoid, and the sternal head of the pectoralis major. The teres major and the long head of the triceps brachii also play a weak role.
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Golf Anatomy and Kinesiology, a collection of articles describing the roles of the muscles involved in the golf swing.
The Role of the Deltoids in the Golf Swing
The Role of the Latissimus Dorsi Muscle in the Golf Swing
The Role of the Pectoralis Major Muscle in the Golf Swing
The Role of the Teres Major in the Golf Swing
The Role of the Triceps in the Golf Swing
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Overview of a Great Golf Swing which summarises the correct movements in a great golf swing.